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History of Policing


Till 1960 entire District Chamoli was a part of District Pauri Garhwal under Kumaon Division. A Brief History of earstwhile rulers who ruled over this area is as follows:-

Till 800 AD Ruled by Nands, Mauryas, Maukharis, Vardhans etc. Dynasties.
800 AD to middle of 1100 AD Ruled by Katyuri rulers, Capital at Joshimath, Shankaracharya visited.
Middle of 1100 AD to end of 1200AD Ruled by Chand of Kumaon and Pala of Garhwal.
End of 1200 AD to middle of 1300 AD Nepali Rulers
Middle of 13th centaury Local rulers. Kadil Pal, Ajay Pal (Panwar dynasty).Kumaon rulers and Rohillas fought with Pals for control over Pinder valley.
1790 AD to 1815 AD Nepali rulers, Gorkha rulers from 1804
1815 AD to 1947 AD British Rule
1947 AD to 2000 AD Under U.P. Govt.
2000 AD- till date Uttarakhand Govt.

Sense of security is omnipresent. The modern Police system involved step by step for maintenance of law & order in the society.

Before the advent of British, the Rights of police officer's were vested in Gram Pradhan and Thokdar. Gram pradhan was responsible for law & order. Thokdar use to supervise work of Gram Pradhan and was answerable to King. Thokdhar, often had to pass the Judgment in which mainly financial penalty was given as sentence.

In 1815, British rule was established over Garhwal. Consideration for establishment of police Station was not made by British as the crime reported was negligible in the region. Kumaon Commissioner was vested with police power along with other responsibilities. Initially, Army Contingent which was based at Srinagar entrusted for internal security and police order. However, Gram pradhan was given police power. Along with Pradhan and Government officer's the Thokdar remained important for maintenance law & order. But later on they started misusing police power and hence were stripped off form the conferred said right.

The British appointed "Patwari" for maintaining land records and collection of revenue in the hilly regions of Kumon and Garhwal.This New system worked effectively and resulted in good revenue generation. These land revenue officers's (Patwari) were then given additional Police responsibilities. Since the crimes were negligible and it saved the additional financial burden on government exchequer, it was found most suitable system for hilly region of Garhwal. Atkinson in 1880, also worte that the police system prevalent in plain was not suitable for hilly region. In 1889, Chamoli became 'Tehsil' Headquarter with appointment of a deputy collector.

The rights conferred to Pradhan and Thokdhar were as per the provisions of Rule 49 of Kumaon Rules 1894, and section 6 of Scheduled District Act 1874. As per the Act mentioned latter, the police rights were given to Deputy Commissioner, Tehsildar, Peshkar Kanungo and Patwari in their respective regions. Patwari, in a specific area which consisted of 60 to 80 villages, was responsible for police duties. Eventually, Patwari acted as a Station Officer of police for executing crime investigation and maintaining law and order in his area. Henceforth, this system came to be known as "Patwari-Police System" in hills.

Police station were established at Almora (1837), Nainital and Ranikhet (1893). Ranikhet was nearest Police Station for this region. Since incidents of loot were reported along Yatra routes, Regular Police had been employed along these routes besides Gram Chowkidars for patrolling during Yatra season. Need for deployment of regular police was felt especially after "Forest Movement" in 1920. Inspectors, sub-inspectors and other police personals were appointed and raised in numbers under Kumaon Division. Headquarter of this Division was kept at Nainital under Superintendent of Police, Kumaon Division. Police Stations were established at Joshimath and Ukhimath whereas police check posts were established at Shri Badrinath, Chamoli, Karanprayag and Mehalchauri.

In 1938, police station was established at Badrinath in place of Joshimath but again Joshimath Police Station was restored after ten years. Uttar pradesh Government letter No. 4097/8-390-39 Lucknow Dated 12th November, 1938 stated – although government is determined to keep revenue police in hills but Joshimath, Mana under police station Badrinath and areas along ' Yatra Routs ' shall be under regular police. In 1938, there were 17 police stations under Kumaon division. Under this district,

Badrinath and Ukhimath were police station and Joshimath, Chamoli, Karnprayag were chowki of Badrinath police station.

Gradually, more area under regular police came up. Chamoli and Joshimath police station notified in 1960. By 1963, more villages were included under regular police, but still today 4/5 of total geographical area of district is under revenue police.

Therefore, two type of police system is prevelant at present in the District. Regular Police mainly caters urban area having poplation of 183,745 and areas bordering roads, nearby villages (294) with population of 186,614. Conspicously, 84.58 % of total population of is served by regular police, whereas the area covered is only 10% of total geographical area of District.

Two new police stations have been establised at Chamoli and Pokhari in the year 2006. Chamoli as an independent district came into existence on 24th February, 1960 as a result of upgradation of Chamoli Tehsil. It is located between latitude 29055'37" N to 31027'3" N and longitude 78027'3" E to 80027'3" E. District includes 1244 census Village 9 Development Blocks, 6 Tehsils and 6 Town Areas. Total area of District is 7519.55 km and density of population is 49 persons/km2.